Capital structure capital structure of a company refers to the composition or make up of its capitalization and it includes all longterm capital resources. Optimal capital structure implies that at a particular ratio of debt and equity, the cost of capital is minimum and value of the firm is maximum. Modigliani and miller approach mm approach it is a capital structure theory named after franco modigliani and merton miller. Traditional and mm approach in capital structure 1. Value of firm ni, noi, mm approach financial management. Modiglianimiller mm approach it somehow supports noi approach it states that value of the firm must be constant irrespective of the degree of leverage even cost of capital as well as market price of share must be same operational justification for mm hypothesis is the arbitrage process arbitrage refers to buying an asset or security in market. Mm intuition 1 if firm a were to adopt firm bs capital structure, its total value would not be affected and vice versa. As a firm increases its leverage, the cost of equity will increase just enough to. It says that the cost of capital is a function of the capital structure. Capital structure irrelevance under prop 1, mm theorized that in a tax free environment, with perfect information and no costs for financial distress, capital structure is irrelevant and changing a. The objective of the firm should be directed towards the maximization of the value of the firm the capital structure, or average, decision should be examined from the point of view of its impact on the value of the firm. The debtequity mix of the firm is irrelevant in determining the total value of the firm.
Perfect capital markets no taxes, no transaction costs, no bankruptcy costs. This article throws light upon the top four theories of capital structure. The theorem was developed by economists franco modigliani and merton miller in 1958. According to traditional approach, the market value of firm q would be higher than that of firm p. It partakes some features of both these approaches. Approaches for capital structure theories scoopskiller. Chapter iii concepts and theories of capital structure and profitability. Download free pdf study materials in financial management.
Under prop 1, mm theorized that in a tax free environment, with perfect information and no costs for financial distress, capital structure is irrelevant and changing a firms capital structure will not impact the firms valuation. The fundamentals of the modigliani and miller approach resemble that of the net operating income approach. The traditional approach to capital structure advocates that there is a right combination of equity and debt in the capital structure, at which the market value of a firm is maximum. These activities cover, to name just a few, corporate finance, investment, financial analysis and plain, general research. Mm theorem was initially meant for capital structure. Leverage, arbitrage, and firm value modigliani and miller mm showed that their capital structure propositions below hold in a perfect capital market, which is a. Theories of capital structure ppt capital structure cost. A firms value will be determined by its project cash flows. Dec 28, 2015 download free pdf study materials in financial management. They mm pointed the direction that such theories must take by showing under what conditions capital structure is irrelevant. Modigliani and miller proposition i without taxes the value of the firm is unaffected by its choice of capital structure under perfect capital markets. This is because ultimately, its value is that of the cash flows generated by its operating assets e.
The modern theory of capital structure began with the celebrated paper of modigliani and miller 1958. The basic theorem states that in the absence of taxes, bankruptcy costs, agency costs, and asymmetric information, and in an efficient market, the value of a firm is. Modiglianimiller theorem financing decisions are irrelevant. Analyzing the value of the company the firm value by using the two theories mm and bfo and studying the effect of the cost of the capital structure in the firm value according to these. Companies should be aware of the pecking order theory which takes a totally different approach, and ignores the search for an optimal capital structure. The traditional approach is midway between the ni and noi approaches. The criticism of the modigliani and miller hypothesis. This suggests that the valuation of a firm is irrelevant to the capital structure of a company. The firms financial policy divides up this cashflow pie among different claimants e. Irrelevance theorem a benchmark striking result is that under fairly general conditions, the value of the firm defined as the sum of value of debt and. Modigliani and miller advocate capital structure irrelevancy theory, which suggests that the valuation of a firm is irrelevant to the capital structure of a company. The theory of capital structure wiley online library. Implications of mm theorem a leverage is irrelevant.
The modiglianimiller theorem of franco modigliani, merton miller is an influential element of economic theory. The modigliani and miller hypothesis is identical with the net operating income approach. The capital structure puzzle is unravelled and a clear. The first of these theories is the net income approach, which proposes that there is a direct relationship between capital structure and the value of the firm. Capital structure theory asks what is the optimal composition between debt and equity. Trade off theory assumes that firms have one optimal debt ratio and firm trade off the. The mm hypothesis is valid if there is perfect market condition. This approach was devised by modigliani and miller during the 1950s. The mm theory explains the effects a firms capital structure may have on the value of the company for investment purposes. The mm hypothesis reveals that if more debt is included in the capital structure of a firm, the same will not increase its value as the benefits of cheaper debt capital are exactly set off by the corresponding increase in the cost of equity, although debt capital is less expensive than the equity capital. Capital structure theory modigliani and miller mm approach the modigliani and miller approach to capital theory, devised in the 1950s, advocates the capital structure irrelevancy theory. Oct 02, 2019 the traditional theory of capital structure says that for any company or investment there is an optimal mix of debt and equity financing that minimizes the wacc and maximizes value.
Introduction financial theory in the recent decades has gradually developed more complex theories of the capital structure optimization, which are necessary theoretical and methodological basis for the management of liabilities. This article throws light upon the top four approaches of capital structure of a firm. Nevertheless, it is noted that in a large number of these studies, the capital, i. The optimal debt ratio is the one that maximizes the overall value of the.
Modigliani and miller mm are great academics in economics and finance who broadly studied the impact of capital structure on a companys value mm proposition 1 without taxes. The study of capital structure attempts to explain how listed firms utilise the mix of various forms of securities in order to finance investment. Optimum capital structure f9 financial management acca. Leverage, arbitrage, and firm value modigliani and miller mm showed that their capital structure propositions below hold in a perfect capital market, which is a market with the following set of conditions. It says that the capital structure is irrelevant to the value of a firm. This approach believes there is no optimal capital structure, and that the. The modiglianimiller theory of capital structure proposes that the market value of a firm is irrelevant to its capital structure, i. Raising of capital from different sources and their use in different assets by a company is made on the basis of certain principles that provide a system.
Aug 26, 20 in the absence of corporate taxes according to this approach the v and its ko are independent of its capital structure. Traditional and mm approaches in capital structure merin c. Firm p is unlevered as its capital structure consists of equity capital only. Free prezi template running business is great corporate prezi developed by prezzip to be reused by the prezi community. David durand suggested the two famous capital structure theories, viz, net income. As per this approach, debt should exist in the capital structure only up to a specific point. The basic theorem states that in the absence of taxes, bankruptcy costs, agency costs, and asymmetric information, and in an efficient market, the value of a firm is unaffected by how that firm is financed. In this article, we consider the wacc of the company in the theory of mm and modify mm s theory for a finite lifetime company. The special thing about this approach is that it believes an optimal capital structure. The first milestone on the issue was set by modigliani and miller1958 through which they presented in their seminal work two important propositions that shaped the economic theory behind capital structure and its effect on firm value. Theories of capital structure ppt capital structure.
The first is substantive and it stems from their nature of irrelevance propositions. According to ni approach a firm may increase the total. Modigliani and miller were two professors who studied capital structure theory and. In fact, the lifetime of the company is always, of course, finite and the inclusion of this significantly changes formulae obtained by mm, in particular for the weighted average cost of capital wacc. According to mm proposition, firm value is irrelevant to capital structure or financing decision.
Approaches to capital structure mm approach and traditional. The modiglianimiller mm theorems are a cornerstone of finance for two reasons. As a firm increases its leverage, the cost of equity will increase just enough to offset any gains to the leverage. Valueirrelevance proposition by the modiglianimiller modiglianimiller mm proposition is the first theory about capital structure. Traditional and mm approaches in capital structure merin c 2. Theories of capital structure explained with examples. Under the net income nl approach, the cost of debt and cost of equity are assumed to be independent of the capital structure. Meaning of capital structure capital structure refers to the combination or mix of debt and equity which a company uses to finance its long term operations. In this article, we consider the wacc of the company in the theory of mm and modify mms theory for a finite lifetime company. Capital structure capital structure of a company refers to the composition or make up of its capitalization and it. But according to mm approach, this situation cannot persist for long. This paper discusses five theories of capital structure which has been mostly argued in literature.
The literature, building on mertons insights, has attempted to tackle these. But in the real world capital market, imperfection arises in the capital structure of a firm which affect the valuation. The goal of this chapter is to discuss the various theories that help to explain the determination of capital structure. It suggests that when a company wants to raise finance it does so in the following pecking order. Take an investor holding share s of firm 2, for a total of o 6. The theory provides insight into a firms capital structure decision in a capital market free of taxes, transaction costs, and other frictions. The optimal debt ratio is the one that minimizes the cost of capital for a. The capital structure decision can affect the value of the firm either by changing the expected earnings or the cost of capital or both. Modiglianimiller theories of capital structure assumptions. Because with increased use of debt as a source of finance, ke increases and the advantage of low cost debt is offset. Capital structure theory modigliani and miller mm approach. Whether a firm is highly leveraged or has a lower debt component has no bearing on its market value.
The definition states that the market value of a company is calculated. Modigiliani miller approach and arbitrage financial. Mm approach with corporate taxes and capital structure. Indeed, the proof applies to all financial transactions. By reconciling empirical evidence with theory practical strategies for managing capital structure in transition are suggested. Firm q is levered as its capital structure includes 10% debentures of rs. The traditional theory of capital structure says that for any company or investment there is an optimal mix of debt and equity financing that minimizes the wacc and maximizes value. Since then, many economists have followed the path they mapped. Weighted average cost of capital in the theory of modigliani. The weighted average cost of capital declines and the total value of the firm rise with increased use of average. The modigliani and miller approach to capital theory, devised in the 1950s, advocates the capital structure irrelevancy theory. Feb 27, 2017 traditional and mm approach in capital structure 1. Modiglianimiller and capital structure theory finance train. The criticism of the modigliani and miller hypothesis finance.710 1387 436 624 795 485 1400 543 1300 322 1037 327 390 664 1039 331 59 1091 246 1158 324 1135 1189 587 838 818 566 404 383 1085 1375 737 536 708 1061 1489 290 470 592 1455